Cryptography is a method of protecting and securing computer information through the use of code. The term itself can be deconstructed into two portions “crypt” + “graphy”; crypt means hidden/vault and graphy means writing.
In the context of computer science, cryptography is the use of algorithms for the secure storage and transmission of data. These algorithms are derived from advanced mathematical principles and are used in the generation of cryptographic keys, digital signing, verification to protect data privacy, internet web browsing, and sensitive confidential communications such as credit cards in financial transactions and email.
Cryptography is built upon a foundation of 4 core philosophies:
+ Confidentiality: the information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended
+ Integrity: the information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected
+ Non-repudiation: the creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in the creation or transmission of the information
+ Authentication: the sender and receiver can confirm each other’s identity and the origin/destination of the information